Back Bay History

1814   Development begins: Mass legislature chartered the Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation, and approved construction of a long mill dam to cut off 430 acres of tidal flats from the river, which also served as a toll road to Watertown. The dam is under present-day Beacon Street.
1821   Basin subdivided into Upper or Fill Basin, Lower or Receiving Basin, to power water mills
1828   70-75 Beacon Street built along the mill dam, oldest structures in the Back Bay
1841   US Harbor Commission established line beyond which the Back Bay could not be filled, and thus encroach on the harbor
1849   Health Department demanded the area be filled
1850   152 Beacon Street built for Isabella Stewart by her father
1850   Commission appointed to investigate the Back Bay and recommend development options
1852   July -- Commission on Harbor and Back Bay Lands appointed
1853   Commissioners on Boston Harbor and Back Bay Lands begin writing annual reports
1855   Name of Commission on Harbor and Back Bay Lands changed to Commissioners on Public Lands
1856   Tripartite Agreement of 1856 between the State of Mass, Boston, and the Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation-dividing up the lands. Part of the city land went to develop the Public Garden.

September--Filling of the Back Bay began-average depth of fill 20 feet; more than 450 acres filled; fill brought from Needham; streets were filled to grade 17 (17 ft above mean low tide), lots filled to grade 12, so basements would be below street level.

1859   Arlington Street Church built
1860   The house at 137 Beacon Street, later known as the Gibson House, was built
1860   Filling of Back Bay reached Clarendon Street
1861   State granted a block of Back Bay (Boylston and Berkeley) to the Boston Society of Natural History and MIT
1861   Halcyon Place (corner of Berkeley and Commonwealth) built as a guest home for families of patients at Mass General
1862   152 Beacon Street-Isabella Stewart Gardner moved in
1862   Emmanuel Church completed (Newbury Street)
1863   MIT located on Boylston-current site of New England Life building
1864   Society of Natural History building completed (Berkeley between Boylston and Newbury)
1865   December-Toll no longer collected on mill dam toll road
1865   First statue erected on the Commonwealth Avenue Mall
1867   Central Congregational Church completed (Newbury Street and Berkeley)
1868   First Church of 1630 (Unitarian) moved from Chauncey Place to newly completed church designed by Ware and Van Brunt (Berkeley and Marlborough)
1869   Temporary coliseum built in Copley Square. It held the National Peace Jubilee that year, which was attended by President Ulysses Grant
1870   Filling of Back Bay reached Exeter Street
1871   160 Commonwealth, Hotel Vendome, built--first hotel in city with electric lighting, it had an independent lighting plant designed by Edison in 1882
1871   Brattle Square Church (Unitarian) moved to newly built church designed by H.H. Richardson (Commonwealth and Clarendon) aka-"church of the holy bean blowers." Statues on the tower designed by Frederic August Bartholdi, designer of the Statue of Liberty.

Fire destroys 65 acres of downtown Boston

1874   Second Church of 1660 (Unitarian) moved from Bedford Street to newly completed church (Boylston between Dartmouth and Clarendon)
1875   Third Church (Congregational) moved from Old South Meeting Hall to newly completed church (Dartmouth and Boylston)
1876   Museum of Fine Arts opened in Copley Square
1877   Trinity Church completed, designed by H.H. Richardson
1879   Commissioners on Public Lands changed to Harbor and Land Commission
1880   150 Beacon Street-Isabella Stewart Gardner bought to expand her home at 152
1880   Land for the current site of Boston Public Library purchased

Filling of Back Bay complete to Charlesgate East

1883   Harvard Medical School located in building at Boylston and Exeter
1883   Triangle lot bounded by Huntington, Dartmouth, Boylston purchased and named Copley Square
1884   Hollis Street Church completed (southeast corner of Newbury and Exeter, current site of Exeter towers) It was destroyed in 1966
1884   Triangle lot bounded by Huntington, Trinity Place, St. James added to Copley Square to make it a square
1885   Temple of the Working Union of Progressive Spiritualists completed (northeast corner of Newbury and Exeter)
1887   Bridge from West Chester park in Boston to Mass Ave in Cambridge authorized
1889   Bay State Road created by dredging the river and filling the Charles Rivers
1890   Filling of Back Bay reached Kenmore Square
1891   Bridge from West Chester Park in Boston to Mass Ave in Cambridge opened to travel, and renamed the John Harvard bridge
1894   West Chester Park renamed Massachusetts Avenue
1895   Boston Public Library opened in Copley Square
1895   Christian Science Church dedicated
1899   Mass Historical society moved from 30 Tremont Street to the newly built 1154 Boylston Street
1900   Filling of Back Bay completed with last few acres of the Fens
1904   5 Commonwealth Ave built by Walter C. Baylies; 1912 built ballroom for daughter's debut. Building now houses the Boston Center for Adult Education.

MIT moved to Cambridge

1963-65   Magnolias planted on Commonwealth Avenue

Images provided courtesy of the Boston Public Library. To see more historic images, please visit the BPL's digital image gallery.